Unit 8: Final Major Project

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For my unit 8 collaborative project I am designing, planning, writing and producing a mixtape.  The focus of this project is the mixtape format and vocal production.

Name Mitchell Neumann
Pathway Music Production Level 3 Year 1
Project Title 1392997
Section 1: Rationale 
 

This will be the first musical project I will release and will be the first project I define myself by in the music industry. I want this project to be in spirit and nature of a modern hip-hop mixtape. I will use my research to inform and direct my project. I plan on making a body of work in accordance with the characteristics and format of a modern hip-hop mixtape. I don’t want to charge for this project because its sole purpose is to showcase my skills and variety in musical choices as well as lyrical content while keeping in accordance to and spirit of the format. I want to bring this project as close to a product (mixtape) as possible, and then as an evaluative aspect present it to an audience and have them decide whether or not they would pay for it based on the quality of the overall project. For this project, I will require good time management and the studio tools I have access to in my college, as well as the cooperation of the collaborators I intend to have in the project.

 

Section 2: Project concept 
 

I want to create a mixtape. The name of the mixtape will be 1392997. This is my student ID. I plan to have 8 tracks, two of which will be instrumentals. I want this project to have a good aesthetic and presentation. The collaboration extends musically and I plan to collaborate with vocalists and producers to create this compilation. I wish to have my own mixes overseen by my teachers and perhaps other professionals if possible. I want this to be a collaborative effort and my first musical project with which I present myself to the music industry.

 

Section 3: Evaluation 
 

The evaluation of my project will come in three phases: a response from my teachers, peers and myself. I will propose the project to my peers, teachers, and collaborators and then will present the final project to them once it is completed. I will collect their opinions, praises, and criticisms on the whole project and its creation process and record them. I will do the same for my peers. My personal evaluation will come in the form of an objective afterthought to things I did well and things I didn’t do well and my personal satisfaction grade.

 

Proposed research sources 
 

Lynda.com – Vocal Production

College – Teachers, interviews

Internet Sources

 

Artwork

 

 

Tracklist

 

The Stars Shine For You Tonight (Orchestral)

Dryspell (prod. Jacob Lethal Beats)

Cross My Heart (prod. Gum$)

Missed Calls feat. Monique (prod. Penacho)

1392997 (prod. JPSoundz)

Paperchase feat. Toby Chris (prod. Penacho)

Live Life To The Fullest feat. Reezy x IamSUUBi (prod. IamSUUBi)

Silvergreen Island (Instrumental)

 

Weekly Planner

 

Project action plan and timetable

Week

Date Week

Beginning

Activity / what you are intending to do – including independent study

Resources / what you will need to do – including access to resources

 

Week 1 & 2

 

 20/2/17 Pre-planning   This is when we were informed about the unit and project. I would like to get a head start. I will need a storage medium to keep my idea and build on them. Notes app on my phone will be sufficient for this.
 

Week 3 & 4

 

 6/3/17  Design  I will take these weeks to design and plan out every aspect of my project and how I will achieve these things. I will also gather information about the materials and skills I require.
 

Week 5 & 6

 

 20/3/17 Songwriting/ Inform collaborators   In this stage I will begin to write songs and/or collect ideas for songs. I will approach those people I want to collaborate with and gauge whether or not they will be a good addition to the project.
 

Week 7 & 8

 

 3/4/17  Songwriting I will be on vacation during this time. I will use this time to find inspiration for my songs and write them while having time to consider other aspects of my project and add final touches to my plan. I can also visit my friend here and discuss our collaboration (Toby Chris).
 

Week 9 & 10

 

17/4/17   Produce Tracks/ Research During this time I will begin simultaneously researching and producing my tracks. The research will either be for the context of my project, or for the production skills I require to finish my project to a good standard. I will require access to a studio and good recording equipment and a DAW. College is perfect for this.
 

Week 11 & 12

 

 1/5/17  Produce Tracks/ Research Continuation of Research and production. By this point, I should be well into production and be using production techniques from class and my own research. My research on the project context should be heavily influencing my project.
 

Week 13 & 14

 

 15/5/17

 Produce Tracks/ Research 

Same as above. I should be approaching final mix on my songs by this point.
 

Week 15 & 16

 

 29/5/17 Finish production/ Research/ First Submission  Here I want to submit my project for the first time and see how I am doing. It should be mostly finished and research should be mostly finished.
 

Week 17 – 21

 

 5/6/17 Finish Project   I will apply the last iotas of adjustment and add polish to my project here. Maybe even finish early and promote it.

 

Research

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Mixtape (mix-tape or mix tape): a compilation (can be homemade or produced in a professional environment if the artist is willing to pay) of music recorded onto a medium for listening. Traditionally recorded onto cassette tapes but later replaced by CD and song file formats (e.g. MP3). The format is formally known for it’s underground and youth-cult nature and it is unlikely to be found in a commercial environment, however as a format for musical presentation it proves quite popular and does have commercial value, but perhaps not mainstream success. Mixtapes may be priced or free. Mix tapes are mostly recognized from hip hop but are theoretically a format applicable to all other genres by definition. Considering the locus of its inception, however, the general consensus is that mixtapes are hip hop or lyrical in nature and that other compilations in other genres are usually known by another format and name.

The songs can be sequential but are not bound by any specific order and are up to the compiler. However mix tapes may demonstrate features such as beat matching, overlap creation and fading between the end of one song and the beginning of the next to create an impression of an uninterrupted track or mix. The compilation may simply be a selection of favorite songs or they could be linked by theme or mood. These aspects could also be tailored to the intended recipient or audience of the mixtape. The recipient could be a target audience or an individual or a group of individuals, the latter being dubbed a “private mix tape”, the former a “public mix tape”. A mixtape may be distributed physically, played by a DJ, presented on a digital online platform such as Soundcloud and more.

In hip-hop, the mixtape is used to describe a (typically) self-produced and independently released compilation (possibly album) that is issued or distributed free of charge to gain publicity and/or circumvent possible copyright infringement.

In 1963 the compact audio cassette from Philips appeared at the 1963 Berlin Radio Show. At this time the quality of cassettes was not good enough to be seriously considered for music recording.

Traditionally, the making of a music compilation required specialized equipment (e.g. an 8 track recorder) which made this process inaccessible to the casual music fan. This changed with the advent of mainstream cassette tapes and recorders around the 1970s which made it possible to make compilations only using cassettes, a cassette recorder and a source of pre-recorded music (e.g. radio). At first, the cassette was only in mono but improvements in fidelity made the cassette a more acceptable choice. The 8-track tape cartridge was mainly the music recording device of choice until the cassette recorder was of sufficient competition. The 8 track nearly dissipated by the 1980s. The ready availability of devices such as cassettes and cassette recorders made it much more feasible to collect and store music in a mix on these tapes, hence the “mix tape”. Improved quality and popularity of cassette players encouraged the growth of the mixtape phenomenon, which was further pushed by integration of these devices into cars, homes, social functions and further innovations such as the Sony Walkman. The increased portability and efficiency of the creation and playback of mix tapes furthered their presence and popularity.

In the 1970s deejays (e.g. Grandmaster Flash, Furious Five, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Herc etc.) would often distribute recordings of club performances on audio cassettes and customized recordings for individual tape purchasers. Tapes from deejays were usually of a higher standard because of incorporated deejay techniques such as beat matching and scratching. Tapes like these would showcase the deejays ability and style, and could have been sold for profit.

In the digital age, recorded deejay sets are usually posted or uploaded onto digital platforms or other online hosts. Deejay can use this platform to communicate to an online audience. Radio is also an option, with there being radio shows worldwide that specialize in mix series such as The Breezeblock (BBC), The Solid Steel Show (formerly on KISS-FM) and Eddy Temple-Morris/The Remix (Xfm)

Tapes were originally dubbed by jockeys to serve as standbys for times when they did not have disco turntables to hand.

  • Billboard Magazine – 12 October 1974  

 

Homemade mix tapes became common in the 1980s. This became a highly visible element of youth culture. The point where audio cassettes no longer had dominance in format was when CD players and burners along with MP3 players replaced audio cassettes as a medium for homemade mixes.

“The high point of traditional mixtape culture was arguably the publication of Nick Hornby’s novel High Fidelity in 1995.”

 

In the advent of mix CDs and shared MP3 playlists (and the advantages of the more durability and storage and quicker preparation), audio cassettes as a medium became mostly obsolete.

Traditional mix tape enthusiasts are disappointed with the obsolescence of the cassette tape, while others see the advantages that new formats bring by opening up the possibilities and accessibilities. New cultures have arisen around these new formats such as the online digital mix tape. One example of this can be seen from a friend of mine and a compilation of his (a mix tape rather, a collection of singles from that year):

An example of a physical medium would be the CD format, which still has a place in today’s music culture albeit not as booming as the new digital platforms. Around Camden Town in London, there will be the occasional artist attempting to sell their music, usually a mixtape or an EP. I have collected a sample which can be seen here:

The CD format has the advantages of being more durable, having a higher capacity and user friendliness. All one needs is a computer with a DVD drive with disc burning capabilities (which is very common), a suitable program to burn with and a CD. They are also very cheap and theoretically cost-effective to mass-produce. Typical CDs can hold about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 mebibytes (a multiple of the megabyte; 1000kb = 1MB, 1024kb = MiB) of data. This makes them ideal for storage of WAVs, a lossless file, or several high-quality MP3s (VBR or 320kbps). This makes them ideal also for deejay use with CDJ turntables. One would need a device capable of CD playback to listen to the contents, but it is no financial obstacle by any means. Rather, a question of convenience in today’s world of devices capable of MP3 playback and streaming.

The format of the MP3 player (or any device capable of MP3 playback for that matter) is more convenient still than the CD since it combines the medium and the means of adding to the medium all at once. On the more advanced variety of these players (considering a range between a simple mp3 player to the latest cutting edge smartphone) one can access the store on which music files can be purchased and downloaded directly to the device. On a more simple player, this may not be possible, but it is still as simple as connecting the device to a computer and adding songs via file transfer or a dedicated program (e.g. iTunes). This can be achieved with a computer running an operating system that supports a file transfer system or the dedicated program. Considering the extremely low system requirements of such a process, this can be done on virtually any modern computer.

A system requirements list from the official Apple website for running iTunes 11 can be seen here:

Hardware

  • PC with a 1GHz Intel or AMD processor and 512MB of RAM
  • To play Standard Definition video from the iTunes Store, an Intel Pentium D or faster processor, 512MB of RAM, and a DirectX 9.0-compatible video card is required.
  • To play 720p HD video, an iTunes LP, or iTunes Extras, a 2.0GHz Intel Core 2 Duo or faster processor, 1GB of RAM, and an Intel GMA X3000, ATI Radeon X1300, or NVIDIA GeForce 6150 or better is required.
  • To play 1080p HD video, a 2.4GHz Intel Core 2 Duo or faster processor, 2GB of RAM, and an Intel GMA X4500HD; ATI Radeon HD 2400; Nvidia GeForce 8300 GS or better is required.
  • Screen resolution of 1024×768 or greater; 1280×800 or greater is required to play an iTunes LP or iTunes Extras
  • 16-bit sound card and speakers
  • Broadband Internet connection to use the iTunes Store
  • iTunes-compatible CD or DVD recorder to create audio CDs, MP3 CDs, or back-up CDs or DVDs

Software

  • Windows XP Service Pack 2 or later, 32-bit editions of Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8

  • 64-bit editions of Windows Vista, Windows 7, or Windows 8 require the iTunes 64-bit installer

  • 400MB of available disk space

Evidently, system requirements are not a hurdle and the price of a machine of that caliber with a compatible portable device capable of MP3 playback is easily affordable and acquirable. All this makes the MP3 player format even more accessible and is certainly evidence of its ubiquity among modern music listeners.

One platform or collection of services rather is shifting focus away from locally stored music on devices to cloud-based streaming of music. Examples of this include, but are not limited to, Soundcloud, Spotify, Bandcamp, and Napster.

Soundcloud is a cloud host for uploading music onto a platform accessible by others that have access to the internet, and direct interaction between users is possible for those in possession of an account with this service. This has shifted the storage and playback of music on to a cloud basis where the medium is the website. The restrictions here apply to the individual user and how much the website offers them. In my example above, my friend owns a free account, in which an upload limit is imposed. For the purpose of the mixtape he published, this was not an obstacle because the upload limit of a free account is 180 minutes. Here is an excerpt from the official Soundcloud website on their upload restrictions:

Each SoundCloud plan has its own upload allowance. For a Free user, you can upload a total of 180 minutes (3 hours). A Pro user can upload a total of 360 minutes (6 hours) and a Pro Unlimited user has no upload limit at all.

This platform charges on an account and usage basis, similarly to other cloud-based platforms, as opposed to buying a storage medium with physical memory and a device with which to store the music onto said medium. In this case, the resource in question is the platform, and by choice, for anyone and everyone to hear, with the added benefit of not being able to be lost physically. The opportunities here for sharing far outshine the physical medias as anyone can access the music through a link by using a web browser able to access Soundcloud.

Another platform should be mentioned for its unparalleled sharing capabilities, however, it is not feasible for the homemade mixtape compiler because the service only offers licensed music. Streaming services like Spotify, MOG, Rdio, Rhapsody and Napster offer a catalog of licensed music for the listener to choose from. Services such as these gain revenue from advertisements just like other sites, but also directly from the users paying to have access to ad-free accounts with other benefits. Each individual service may differ slightly but they each have a common business model of offering unlimited streaming for a fixed monthly price, further reducing the cost of listening to music per song. Assuming one’s mixtape is licensed, this is a great method for connecting to an audience or exposure.

The creation of a traditional mixtape by hand is a long process compared to the quick device synchronizations we have nowadays. To record onto a cassette tape one needs to consider the types of tapes available and the equipment required to record onto blank tapes. This is detailed here:

Type I (shown): Standard ferric oxide magnetic tapes, called Type I, normal bias, or ferric tapes, etc.
Type II (shown): made of chromium dioxide formula, called Type II, high bias, or chrome tapes. These record better highs, and sound generally better than Type I tapes.
Type III: FeCr formulation. These tapes combined the formulas for Type I and Type II as an experiment to make the ultimate tape, combining the bass response of the I and the highs of the II, these were unpopular and are generally rare.
Type IV: Known as metal tapes, they used a direct metal formulation instead of oxide particles. By far the best sound quality, but are generally more expensive than Type I or II.

For the specific method I chose to illustrate, the instructions given here detail the required paraphernalia to record onto a tape:

Tools required for this method:
1. A tape deck

2. A receiver (for playback) with speakers

3. A device to record from

4. RCA audio cables

5. Power, a strip cord is recommend

The creation of single physical mixtapes (e.g. audio cassettes, compact discs) is not complicated technically speaking, but mass production presents some challenges to the creator. A full description of this process can be found in the link above.

Tape players lack the ability to skip songs, so it also needs to be looked at in its entirety. Juxtaposition and linked themes might are also to be considered with the selection and order of the songs to make a unified listening experience perhaps. Here is an excerpt from High Fidelity where Mr. Hornby explains the intricacies of planning and making a traditional mixtape:

  • Nick Hornby – High Fidelity

In the era and practice of traditional mixtape creation, enthusiasts heavily considered the packaging of the audio cassette mix tape. This would result in the creation of cover art for the tapes and custom liner notes. This became a convention of mixtape presentation, whether the intention was for a wide audience or an individual. This could add an element of individuality to the mixtape. The selection of music for compilations became an art in and of itself. It could be argued that the selection of songs became a new body of work, a commentary of sorts from the author given physical form through audio cassettes and the musical work of others. However, this moves away from the notion of simply creating an enjoyable compilation for listening.

In the dawning era of hip-hop, live was the only way you could hear it. Deejays or ‘selectors’ would choose the music and beat-juggle while the MCs or announcers would orate over the top in front of a live audience. Over time these performances could be recorded via various methods onto tape and were distributed. In the 1970s hip-hop mixtapes first started to appear in New York City featuring progenitors of hip-hop culture such as Kool Herc and Afrika Bambaataa. Tapes were then collected and traded by fans.

The term mixtape in hip-hop describes a full-length album-scope project released for free. This is not always the case and there are exceptions such as If You’re Reading This It’s Too Late, a mixtape by the artist Drake sold for profit. The main differences between a hip-hop album are the characteristics and intention of the project as well as perhaps the audience. A lot of the times the projects themselves are defined completely by the artist. An Album is usually a commercial project licensed and prepared in part with a label. All samples are aimed to be cleared for fair financial use and all other material is created by the artist and project collaborators. Albums are usually unitary as projects and follow a musical arc where all the songs are linked thematically or otherwise. The audience may be similar to the mixtape since they share the genre, but the album is specifically marketed to consumers willing and able to buy the product, whereas the mixtape following the intention of exposure will simply target any fan of the genre or the artist. Mixtapes may contain unlicensed samples or instrumentals, or remixes (bootleg or otherwise) which have not been overseen by a legal team or contractor. This modern form of the mixtape was made popular following 50 Cent and his group G-Unit in the early 2000s (50 Cent Is the Future, arguably is the project that did this).

My Mixtape

Seeing this research and context, I want my mixtape to simply be a collection of singles with myself and fellow collaborators rapping or singing over instrumentals. My body of work fits with this definition and is of a decent quality. My mixtape starts with an orchestral piece which I have put together as a musical intro of sorts and is then followed by six lyrical songs each as standalone singles compiled together. At the end is an instrumental which I produced to showcase my instrumental creation skills. Linking them together is the production and vocal technique both recording and production that I have assimilated with my research and experimentation. The mixtape has a simple cover of my design, which fits with the package aesthetic mentioned earlier. The format of my mixtape is digital because it is the most relevant and easiest to share with other people. The mixtape will be completely free for listening on my Soundcloud account. The genre of the mixtape is mostly hip-hop, with some experimental elements. The order is in such a way that I thought fit best, although I cannot say why exactly because the placement is mostly intuitive.

Evidence of Research and Collaboration

Below is photographical evidence of my notes on vocal production from the website Lynda.com

Hip Hop Vocal Production:

Collaboration in the Studio: Jesse and Reece (above) Raf (below)

The image below shows my colleagues Jesse and Reece partaking in a collaborative session with me. They are both vocalists and versed in production:

The image below shows my colleague Raf helping me with the mix on a song:

This image below details evidence of me planning a script for some spoken word on Cross My Heart:

 

Collaboration

The collaborative aspect was quite interesting to say the least. At first it was exciting, the prospect of working with everyone I possibly could. I soon realized the more people I depended on the more difficult it was to pull everything together because half of the time everyone I depended on was unreliable. However, the people that did pull through gave me a really nice result and looking at my entire project as a whole I was surprised with how well the tracks with other vocalists turned out. The instrumentals I consider a collaborative aspect as well, and as soon as I release my project on Soundcloud to the public I will let the producers know I used their instrumentals and ask what they think of it.

There were a couple of songs I scrapped from the project completely because the people who I had intended to include either expressed they had no interest, or worse, expressed interest but didn’t show up to studio sessions to record their parts. To solve this problem I simply archived the song or the song idea and focussed on the other aspects of my project.

The easiest collaboration was with the producers. I did not communicate with them directly, instead they posted free instrumentals (free unlicensed usage for non-profit purposes) on their Youtube accounts and I simply downloaded the ones I liked. Collaborating with the vocalists who showed up was really fun. We exchanged ideas with each other and both decided on the production of the song together (Live Life To The Fullest). One of the vocalists even made the instrumental for the song, which was really cool.

Opinions

In the image below I screened a pre-mix version of Cross My Heart to some peers in my department and here they wrote their opinions:

Performance

I had performed Cross My Heart in front of a live audience at an establishment called The Bedford. I performed a version that was not final, and I forgot both my choruses and mulled my way through them, which was not ideal. However the verses were perfectly delivered. The reaction from the audience was lukewarm, but more on the warmer side. The song I performed had undergone a change since then and the opinion sheet details feedback on the latest version.

 

Reflection

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Mixtape Planning

Conceivably the easiest part of the project but in turnout practically the most tedious. I wanted the project to sit together nicely to make artistic sense, however I knew it would not be a seamless whole because it was essentially a collection of singles. I had planned a number of tracks beforehand at the beginning and had made placements for certain tracks in a certain order. Through that process songs were made and deleted if I realized they didn’t fit with the mixtape or if someone I wanted to collaborate with was taking too long or backing out. Some songs I simply didn’t like after a while and as such I simply repudiated from the project. I had started out with a plan of 17 tracks, mostly for the case of cutting down later, although I do admit I did actually attempt to go for that ambitious number and perhaps I would have managed it with more time and better preparation, but the time, equipment and skills I had at the time were not at the standard I had expected for putting together the project at the level I had intended.

Planning the mixtape was a multi-consideration effort, at least in the beginning. I considered various things before executing the final project. I wanted to have it mixed and mastered professionally and have lots of collaborators in all aspects including but limited to the artwork. I had even gotten in touch with a radio promoter who approached me offering a radio promotion for my project after he heard a single I had put out in April. I’m not sure if his offer was one hundred percent legitimate, however he did provide ample evidence to prove the contrary. I wanted to purchase all of the instrumentals as well so that I could get in touch with the producers and let them know about my work. I wanted to hold a bigger performance as well and so on. I had planned and wanted to do so much, however the time, skills and resources I had during this project were not enough to complete it to the standard I had expected. I had practically, attempted to complete a years’ worth of work in 5 months. I had also completely focussed on the music aspect instead of doing the research first, however I did do bits here and there to inform myself, most notably the vocal production techniques. This did help a lot and vastly improved the quality of my vocal production.

Next time I will give myself less to do and attempt to do it to an exceptional standard with the correct guidance and amount of resource beforehand.

 

Time Management and Budget

One very important thing I learned was that I had planned everything according to a timeframe that only accounted for the fact of me having already written and practiced the songs, which was not the case. I had one or maybe two songs actually written when I started working on the project in late February. At this point I should have already had all the songs written and ready to record, even with a lesser grand total. The time I had allotted myself to complete the whole project (at least to an exceptional standard and with that many tracks) was not enough.

I also planned my mix tape to a budget that I had not yet acquired, so a primary concern of mine was to quickly find a job that would allow me to acquire that budget quickly to make the project happen. I had allotted a theoretical budget to allow for mastering, distribution, a performance shirt, posters and beat licenses. I would have considered professional mixing if I had more money than the budget as well. Another thing I want to  do differently for next time is have my budget before I start my project so as to be able to plan without the need for the acquisition of the resources required during the time of the creation of the project.

 

Project action plan and timetable

Week

Date week beginning

Review progress and achievement

Analysis and reflection – skills, knowledge and understanding

 

Week 1 & 2

 

 20/2/17 Pre-planning I planned quite a lot here, it went well and I have direction for my project. I reflected on the tasks necessary to pull off the project to my initial plan. I hope everything goes well, I’m being very ambitious.
 

Week 3 & 4

 

 6/3/17  Design Here I’m starting to realize the scale of my project, so I’m spitting more ideas than I have time for purely for the purpose of cutting out. I need to be careful with my time management and working with people who may pose an obstacle rather than an oppose
 

Week 5 & 6

 

 20/3/17 Songwriting/ Inform collaborators I’ve started informing potential collaborators about the project. Some seem less enthusiastic than others, but I’m optimistic. I’ll take my holiday to Berlin as a chance to write most if not all of the songs.
 

Week 7 & 8

 

 3/4/17 Songwriting  I didn’t write as many songs as I thought I would. I definitely need to cut down on the amount of songs I’m doing. I got a job, which means I can maybe finance more things than I thought possible.
 

Week 9 & 10

 

17/4/17  Produce Tracks/ Research  Songwriting still not done, but I’ll start producing the finished ones. I should think about doing some research soon
 

Week 11 & 12

 

1/5/17   Produce Tracks/ Research I researched some vocal production techniques which was really useful because I could apply them immediately. I’m feeling the time pressure now and I realize that there’s not enough time to get everything done. A lot people I’ve asked to collar with either haven’t gotten back or have just been unreliable.
 

Week 13 – 16

 

 15/5/17  Finish Producing Tracks/ Research/ First Submission  I managed to get some collaborative work done, but I’m really behind on research and I’m still producing my songs. I’m really cutting down now, I can’t do more than eight songs.
 

Week 17 – 21

 

 5/6/17  Finish Project  

My time management is really bad. I managed to do six decent-sounding songs and I’m getting banned from the studio because there’s no sign of my written work. I’ve learned a lot from this however, and I feel I can more accurately gauge project scales now. The music is decent and my written is looking good. Time to finish up.

 

 

Bibliography

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References

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Dockrill, P. (2017). It’s Official: The MP3 Is Dead, After Even Its Creators Abandon It. [online] ScienceAlert. Available at: https://www.sciencealert.com/the-mp3-is-officially-dead-after-its-creators-abandoned-it [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

En.wikipedia.org. (2017). Compact disc. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_disc [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

En.wikipedia.org. (n.d.). Mixtape. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mixtape [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Ghoshal, A. (2017). The MP3 format is officially dead. [online] The Next Web. Available at: https://thenextweb.com/insider/2017/05/15/the-mp3-format-is-officially-dead/#.tnw_IpFTlbvm [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Hall, J. (2012). MP3 Players Are Dead. [online] Business Insider. Available at: http://www.businessinsider.com/mp3-players-are-dead-2012-12?IR=T [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Jones, R. (2017). The MP3 Is Officially Dead. [online] Kotaku.com.au. Available at: https://www.kotaku.com.au/2017/05/the-mp3-is-officially-dead/ [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Ludwig, S. (2011). Top 5 on-demand streaming music services feat. Spotify, MOG and Rdio. [online] VentureBeat. Available at: https://venturebeat.com/2011/09/17/top-5-streaming-music-services-spotify-mog-rdio/ [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Maude, S. (2017). Replacing MP3: Is A New Format Likely For DJs + Listeners? – DJ TechTools. [online] DJ TechTools. Available at: http://djtechtools.com/2017/05/26/replacing-mp3-new-format-djs-listeners/ [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Reeve, J. (2015). 5 SoundCloud Alternatives. [online] Huhmagazine.co.uk. Available at: http://www.huhmagazine.co.uk/7499/5-soundcloud-alternatives [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Represent, M. (2013). 20 Reasons Why WAV Is Better Than MP3. [online] Audio Animals. Available at: http://www.audioanimals.co.uk/news/why-wav-is-better-than-mp3 [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

SoundCloud Help Center. (n.d.). Uploading requirements. [online] Available at: https://help.soundcloud.com/hc/en-us/articles/115003452847-Uploading-requirements [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

Support.apple.com. (n.d.). iTunes 11 for Windows – Technical Specifications. [online] Available at: https://support.apple.com/kb/SP664?locale=en_US [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-Record-Cassette-Tapes/ (n.d.) Instructables.com. Web. [Accessed 20 Jun. 2017].

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